The Truth about Facemasks, Hand Sanitizers, Social Distancing, and Quarantines to Combat Infections

Updated: Oct 5

Will wearing a face mask, using hand sanitizers, staying 6-13 ft apart, and quarantining entire populations mitigate pandemics? Learn the TRUTH from experts and official sources now.

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Medical Masks



The most recent 2020 study on face masks concludes:


And, it doesn't take long before serious medical conditions can arise after prolonged use of a mask. Skin irritations, bacterial lung infections, decreased immunity, hypoxia, hypercapnia, medical and emotional distress, feelings of isolation and distrust, mouth diseases, and elevated risks of a false positive Covid19 test are just some of the issues we are seeing.



Here are some eye-opening reports by celebrated and seasoned reporter Ben Swann.


Herein is described the negative effects of the wearing of masks. Below is a summary of the most important points:

  • A higher virus concentration can develop in the mouth cap, which increases the chance of infection.

  • The risk of other micro-organisms entering through careless use of mouth masks can promote co-infection.

  • The increased difficulty of inhaling sufficient oxygen costs more energy. As a result, less energy is available for other important metabolic processes and the immune system.

  • Harmful substances in the mouth caps can damage the cilia, mucous layer and lung epithelium, making it easier for viruses and bacteria to penetrate.

  • Non-verbal communication, essential for human contact, is severely limited. Speaking louder is necessary to understand each other. For people with hearing difficulties, people with mental problems and people with a disability, wearing mouth masks is terrible (Blustein, 2020). Mandatory masks are therefore discriminatory because it will require a certain group of people to participate less in society.

  • Stress causes a higher heart rate and can increase body temperature. This undermines the natural immune system.

  • People may feel tired and uncomfortable while wearing mouth masks. For people with one or more chronic diseases, this causes an increased risk of worsening the situation.

  • The WHO advises against wearing mouth masks during exercise because of the high risks of becoming unwell, getting too low of oxygen, and heart or lung diseases (WHO Newsletter, June 22, 2020). This also requires caution with cycling and walking.

  • The worldwide mandatory wearing of mouth masks / medical masks has already caused a negative effect on the earth due to the increase in plastic waste. The earth is becoming further depleted due to increasing environmental pollution. As a result, there is a greater chance of infections with new or revived micro-organisms (pandemics).

  • Focusing on face masks undermines recovery and prevention for the new wave.

  • The increase in the number of people tested positive and at the same time a decrease in the number of people who die of COVID-19 can be seen in several countries, including the United States. Because mortality rates are decreasing and the number of measured infections is increasing, the infection fatality ratio has decreased to about 0.26%, which is in the range of a flu season.

  • The chances of a COVID-19 vaccine becoming available for the winter are slim; it is expected in the second quarter of 2021. That is after the next flu season. If it is decided to make oral masks compulsory more often, there is a risk that this will weaken the natural immune system in many people. For people with chronic illnesses (58% of the population) in the Netherlands, we can speak of a less effective immune system. And an effective immune system (with good humoral and cellular immunity) is needed to attenuate another wave of any virus. In addition, a weakened immune system is expected to have a reduced response to a potential vaccine.

  • Studies have shown that the elderly respond less well to an influenza virus vaccine when dealing with a stressful situation.

  • Adequate ventilation, higher temperatures and humidity, less air pollution and good vitamin status can help prevent viral infections (Moriyama et al, 2020).

  • Decision making that contributes to the development of group immunity (stimulating the formation of antibodies and T-cell immunity in healthy people) and measures that contribute to a balance of the internal and external ecosystem are advisable. And that is in the interest of everyone.

  • Basically we can conclude that there is no scientific evidence that wearing a mask will prevent vulnerable others catching Covid19 or not, and/or protecting yourself for getting infected, although there is scientific evidence that wearing a mask for a longer period of time is highly unhealthy and can cause numerous infections within your own system.



For the complete post and history on Dr. Coleman, go to this link dedicated link at www.drcoleman.cv19news.ca.


International best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman MB ChB DSc FRSA, investigates the real science behind wearing face masks, discusses the dangers and explains why he won't be wearing a mask.


International best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman MB ChB DSc FRSA, explains the sinister reasons behind the introduction of laws forcing us to wear masks.


International best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman MB ChB DSc FRSA, explains why mask wearing rules are illogical, unscientific and dangerous, and why those who insist on wearing masks are ignorant and are threatening our lives and our future.


The medical establishment, politicians, and the mass media have locked up citizens, and retail and grocery store personal, security guards, police officers, and politicians are obsessing over "flattening the curve" by wearing face masks (both general purpose and medical grade) to "prevent the spread" of Covid19. But is this wise? Is it even effective?


So what do you really need to know according to official agencies?


Our Research

Medical personnel primarily wear a mask to prevent contaminating the patient and the sterile surgical field during an operation, not the other way around! They don't wear a mask to prevent catching a disease from the patient since airborne transmission does not typically occur. They only wear the mask to prevent spitting and coughing on the patient.


As you read the posts and listen to the various videos from doctors and other researchers on CV19News.ca, you will discover that the overwhelming evidence suggests than non-medical personnel should NOT be wearing these masks for many reasons.


Let's examine some basic facts:


  1. First, the human body is meant to freely exhale CO2 and a variety of other accumulated inhaled particulate matter with each breath, which may include bacteria, protein/fat lipid fragments (known commonly as viruses, which are non-contagious by the way), trapped dust and other foreign matter, and of course, water vapor. The damp environment created by the trapped moisture from each exhaled breath provides an ideal breeding ground for bacteria to grow. By trapping these particulates in the cloth of the mask, they are repeatedly being re-breathed back into the wearer's lungs which can lead to an increased likelihood of making the wearer sick, which could then lead to a life-altering mis-diagnosis of Covid19, which was really a result of self-induced illness from bacterial overload that may lead to pneumonia.

  2. The mask restricts oxygen flow and causes the wearer to strain for more oxygen which puts stress on the lungs when worn continuously. This can lead to hypoxia of the lung tissues, or mild lung damage, as the lungs strain for extra O2 to compensate for the restriction of airflow. If you have ever hid under the blankets of your bed for more than a couple of minutes as a kid, you will remember the sense of relief when you came back up for air. That's because you were partially starved for oxygen. By wearing a mask all day, you are actually causes excess stress on lowered oxygen transport to the brain. Later, news reports have surfaced about people wearing masks while driving which led to the driver fainting and causing a crash. One can imagine the insurance nightmare assigning liability to that.

  3. The mask is made of various materials that may contain toxic materials from colored dyes, antifungal treatments, laundry detergent (with self-made, washed, and reused masks), and general air contaminants that can also make you sick when inhaled.

  4. Masks restrict your ability to communicate and to be recognized as we speak to others. This isolation heightens the level of anxiety, stress, and distrust amongst people which can then manifest in disease.

  5. Masks are rarely replaced after each use as directed, are expensive, and should be reserved for the medical community.

  6. The pores of the fabric of the mask (except high-end Hepa or N95 medical-grade masks) are far too large to stop any nano-size particle like a viral fragment. Dr, Andrew Kaufman said it is like trying to stop a flock of mosquitoes with a chain link fence. They will just pass right through the cloth rendering them totally useless.



Click here to download the latest collection of 45 published research studies in PDF format!



Various Mask Porosities


Dimensions:

How small is a micron (µm), and why does it matter? One micron is 1/1000 mm or 1/1,000,000 of a meter (1/25,000 of an inch). Airborne particles are usually described in microns. Generally speaking, the human eye can see debris and dust that are approximately 25 µm in size.


A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, 0.000000001 or 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter which is 1/1000 of a µm. The word nano comes from the Greek word for “dwarf.” The term nanoscale is used to refer to objects with dimensions on the order of 1-100 nanometers (nm).


One 1000th of a micrometer is a nanometer (nm). Notice that the nanometer is three orders of magnitude smaller than the micrometer, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the millimeter, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the meter. Therefore, one nanometer is 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter.

The typical wearable face mask has a mean pore size of 29.7 µm (microns) or 29,700 nm which is about the limit of what the human eye can see. However, the exosome (which is what has been misidentified as Covid19 see this article), is 100 nm in size.


Covid19 is 100 nm in size, and the pores of the typical mask is 29,700 nm in size. Thus it is totally IMPOSSIBLE for the mask to stop the particle. In fact,


...the pore size of a typical mask is 297 times larger than a Covid19 particle.




Given these and other issues, it is NOT recommended scientifically to wear a mask to try to prevent an infection since a mask will not do so anyway. Rather, it may actually lead to a self-induced illness of the wearer.

Dr. Ron Paul on Why he won't wear a mask.

Dr. Blaylock: Face Masks Pose Serious Risks To The Healthy


POSTED BY: RUSSELL BLAYLOCK, MD

MAY 11, 2020

Dr. Russell Blaylock warns that not only do face masks fail to protect the healthy from getting sick, but they also create serious health risks to the wearer. The bottom line is that if you are not sick, you should not wear a face mask.
As businesses reopen, many are requiring shoppers and employees to wear a face mask. Costco, for instance, will not allow shoppers into the store without wearing a face mask. Many employers are requiring all employees to wear a face mask while at work. In some jurisdictions, all citizens must wear a face mask if they are outside of their own home.  ⁃ TN Editor

With the advent of the so-called COVID-19 pandemic, we have seen a number of medical practices that have little or no scientific support as regards reducing the spread of this infection. One of these measures is the wearing of facial masks, either a surgical-type mask, bandana or N95 respirator mask. When this pandemic began and we knew little about the virus itself or its epidemiologic behavior, it was assumed that it would behave, in terms of spread among communities, like other respiratory viruses. Little has presented itself after intense study of this virus and its behavior to change this perception.


This is somewhat of an unusual virus in that for the vast majority of people infected by the virus, one experiences either no illness (asymptomatic) or very little sickness. Only a very small number of people are at risk of a potentially serious outcome from the infection—mainly those with underlying serious medical conditions in conjunction with advanced age and frailty, those with immune compromising conditions and nursing home patients near the end of their lives. There is growing evidence that the treatment protocol issued to treating doctors by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), mainly intubation and use of a ventilator (respirator), may have contributed significantly to the high death rate in these select individuals.

By wearing a mask, the exhaled viruses will not be able to escape and will concentrate in the nasal passages, enter the olfactory nerves and travel into the brain. Russell Blaylock, MD

As for the scientific support for the use of face mask, a recent careful examination of the literature, in which 17 of the best studies were analyzed, concluded that, “ None of the studies established a conclusive relationship between mask/respirator use and protection against influenza infection.”1   Keep in mind, no studies have been done to demonstrate that either a cloth mask or the N95 mask has any effect on transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Any recommendations, therefore, have to be based on studies of influenza virus transmission. And, as you have seen, there is no conclusive evidence of their efficiency in controlling flu virus transmission.


It is also instructive to know that until recently, the CDC did not recommend wearing a face mask or covering of any kind, unless a person was known to be infected, that is, until recently. Non-infected people need not wear a mask. When a person has TB we have them wear a mask, not the entire community of non-infected. The recommendations by the CDC and the WHO are not based on any studies of this virus and have never been used to contain any other virus pandemic or epidemic in history.


Now that we have established that there is no scientific evidence necessitating the wearing of a face mask for prevention, are there dangers to wearing a face mask, especially for long periods? Several studies have indeed found significant problems with wearing such a mask. This can vary from headaches, to increased airway resistance, carbon dioxide accumulation, to hypoxia, all the way to serious life-threatening complications.


There is a difference between the N95 respirator mask and the surgical mask (cloth or paper mask) in terms of side effects. The N95 mask, which filters out 95% of particles with a median diameter >0.3 µm2 , because it impairs respiratory exchange (breathing) to a greater degree than a soft mask, and is more often associated with headaches. In one such study, researchers surveyed 212 healthcare workers (47 males and 165 females) asking about presence of headaches with N95 mask use, duration of the headaches, type of headaches and if the person had preexisting headaches.2


They found that about a third of the workers developed headaches with use of the mask, most had preexisting headaches that were worsened by the mask wearing, and 60% required pain medications for relief. As to the cause of the headaches, while straps and pressure from the mask could be causative, the bulk of the evidence points toward hypoxia and/or hypercapnia as the cause. That is, a reduction in blood oxygenation (hypoxia) or an elevation in blood C02 (hypercapnia). It is known that the N95 mask, if worn for hours, can reduce blood oxygenation as much as 20%, which can lead to a loss of consciousness, as happened to the hapless fellow driving around alone in his car wearing an N95 mask, causing him to pass out, and to crash his car and sustain injuries. I am sure that we have several cases of elderly individuals or any person with poor lung function passing out, hitting their head. This, of course, can lead to death.


A more recent study involving 159 healthcare workers aged 21 to 35 years of age found that 81% developed headaches from wearing a face mask.3   Some had pre-existing headaches that were precipitated by the masks. All felt like the headaches affected their work performance.


Unfortunately, no one is telling the frail elderly and those with lung diseases, such as COPD, emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis, of these dangers when wearing a facial mask of any kind—which can cause a severe worsening of lung function. This also includes lung cancer patients and people having had lung surgery, especially with partial resection or even the removal of a whole lung.


While most agree that the N95 mask can cause significant hypoxia and hypercapnia, another study of surgical masks found significant reductions in blood oxygen as well. In this study, researchers examined the blood oxygen levels in 53 surgeons using an oximeter. They measured blood oxygenation before surgery as well as at the end of surgeries.4 The researchers found that the mask reduced the blood oxygen levels (pa02) significantly. The longer the duration of wearing the mask, the greater the fall in blood oxygen levels.


The importance of these findings is that a drop in oxygen levels (hypoxia) is associated with an impairment in immunity. Studies have shown that hypoxia can inhibit the type of main immune cells used to fight viral infections called the CD4+ T-lymphocyte. This occurs because the hypoxia increases the level of a compound called hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which inhibits T-lymphocytes and stimulates a powerful immune inhibitor cell called the Tregs. This sets the stage for contracting any infection, including COVID-19 and making the consequences of that infection much graver. In essence, your mask may very well put you at an increased risk of infections and if so, having a much worse outcome.5,6,7


People with cancer, especially if the cancer has spread, will be at a further risk from prolonged hypoxia as the cancer grows best in a microenvironment that is low in oxygen. Low oxygen also promotes inflammation which can promote the growth, invasion and spread of cancers.8,9  Repeated episodes of hypoxia has been proposed as a significant factor in atherosclerosis and hence increases all cardiovascular (heart attacks) and cerebrovascular (strokes) diseases.10


There is another danger to wearing these masks on a daily basis, especially if worn for several hours. When a person is infected with a respiratory virus, they will expel some of the virus with each breath. If they are wearing a mask, especially an N95 mask or other tightly fitting mask, they will be constantly rebreathing the viruses, raising the concentration of the virus in the lungs and the nasal passages. We know that people who have the worst reactions to the coronavirus have the highest concentrations of the virus early on. And this leads to the deadly cytokine storm in a selected number.


It gets even more frightening. Newer evidence suggests that in some cases the virus can enter the brain.11,12 In most instances it enters the brain by way of the olfactory nerves (smell nerves), which connect directly with the area of the brain dealing with recent memory and memory consolidation. By wearing a mask, the exhaled viruses will not be able to escape and will concentrate in the nasal passages, enter the olfactory nerves and travel into the brain.13


It is evident from this review that there is insufficient evidence that wearing a mask of any kind can have a significant impact in preventing the spread of this virus.

The fact that this virus is a relatively benign infection for the vast majority of the population and that most of the at-risk group also survive, from an infectious disease and epidemiological standpoint, by letting the virus spread through the healthier population we will reach a herd immunity level rather quickly that will end this pandemic quickly and prevent a return next winter. During this time, we need to protect the at-risk population by avoiding close contact, boosting their immunity with compounds that boost cellular immunity and in general, care for them.


One should not attack and insult those who have chosen not to wear a mask, as these studies suggest that is the wise choice to make.


References

  1. bin-Reza F et al. The use of mask and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: A systematic review of the scientific evidence. Resp Viruses 2012;6(4):257-67.

  2. Zhu JH et al. Effects of long-duration wearing of N95 respirator and surgical facemask: a pilot study. J Lung Pulm Resp Res 2014:4:97-100.

  3. Ong JJY et al. Headaches associated with personal protective equipment- A cross-sectional study among frontline healthcare workers during COVID-19. Headache 2020;60(5):864-877.

  4. Bader A et al. Preliminary report on surgical mask induced deoxygenation during major surgery. Neurocirugia 2008;19:12-126.

  5. Shehade H et al. Cutting edge: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 negatively regulates Th1 function. J Immunol 2015;195:1372-1376.

  6. Westendorf AM et al. Hypoxia enhances immunosuppression by inhibiting CD4+ effector T cell function and promoting Treg activity. Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;41:1271-84.

  7. Sceneay J et al. Hypoxia-driven immunosuppression contributes to the pre-metastatic niche. Oncoimmunology 2013;2:1 e22355.

  8. Blaylock RL. Immunoexcitatory mechanisms in glioma proliferation, invasion and occasional metastasis. Surg Neurol Inter 2013;4:15.

  9. Aggarwal BB. Nucler factor-kappaB: The enemy within. Cancer Cell 2004;6:203-208.

  10. Savransky V et al. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces atherosclerosis. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2007;175:1290-1297.

  11. Baig AM et al. Evidence of the COVID-19 virus targeting the CNS: Tissue distribution, host-virus interaction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms. ACS Chem Neurosci 2020;11:7:995-998.

  12. Wu Y et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain Behavior, and Immunity, In press.

  13. Perlman S et al. Spread of a neurotropic murine coronavirus into the CNS via the trigeminal and olfactory nerves. Virology 1989;170:556-560.


Dr. Russell Blaylock, author of The Blaylock Wellness Report newsletter, is a nationally recognized board-certified neurosurgeon, health practitioner, author, and lecturer. He attended the Louisiana State University School of Medicine and completed his internship and neurological residency at the Medical University of South Carolina. For 26 years, practiced neurosurgery in addition to having a nutritional practice. He recently retired from his neurosurgical duties to devote his full attention to nutritional research. Dr. Blaylock has authored four books, Excitotoxins: The Taste That KillsHealth and Nutrition Secrets That Can Save Your LifeNatural Strategies for Cancer Patients, and his most recent work, Cellular and Molecular Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Another article on why NOT to wear a mask if you are healthy.

https://jennifermargulis.net/healthy-people-wearing-masks-during-covid19/?fbclid=IwAR1ZAzW5e7PC1DB1a3ZBx7g27EmaGQcIsarMoHCBCrz0K1iKyPkwSogGFok

Masks are neither effective nor safe:

A summary of the science


POSTED BY: Colleen Huber, NMD

July 6, 2020

PrimaryDoctor.org


At this writing, there is a recent surge in widespread use by the public of facemasks when in public places, including for extended periods of time, in the United States as well as in other countries.   The public has been instructed by media and their governments that one’s use of masks, even if not sick, may prevent others from being infected with SARS-CoV-2, the infectious agent of COVID-19.

A review of the peer-reviewed medical literature examines impacts on human health, both immunological, as well as physiological.  The purpose of this paper is to examine data regarding the effectiveness of facemasks, as well as safety data.  The reason that both are examined in one paper is that for the general public as a whole, as well as for every individual, a risk-benefit analysis is necessary to guide decisions on if and when to wear a mask.

Are masks effective at preventing transmission of respiratory pathogens?

In this meta-analysis,


face masks were found to have no detectable effect against transmission of viral infections. (1)  It found: “Compared to no masks, there was no reduction of influenza-like illness cases or influenza for masks in the general population, nor in healthcare workers.” 

This 2020 meta-analysis found that evidence from randomized controlled trials of face masks did not support a substantial effect on transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza, either when worn by infected persons (source control) or by persons in the general community to reduce their susceptibility. (2)

Another recent review found that masks had no effect specifically against Covid-19, although facemask use seemed linked to, in 3 of 31 studies, “very slightly reduced” odds of developing influenza-like illness. (3)

This 2019 study of 2862 participants showed that both N95 respirators and surgical masks “resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory confirmed influenza." (4)

This 2016 meta-analysis found that both randomized controlled trials and observational studies of N95 respirators and surgical masks used by healthcare workers did not show benefit against transmission of acute respiratory infections.  It was also found that acute respiratory infection transmission “may have occurred via contamination of provided respiratory protective equipment during storage and reuse of masks and respirators throughout the workday.” (5)

A 2011 meta-analysis of 17 studies regarding masks and effect on transmission of influenza found that “none of the studies established a conclusive relationship between mask/respirator use and protection against influenza infection.” (6)  However, authors speculated that effectiveness of masks may be linked to early, consistent and correct usage.

Face mask use was likewise found to be not protective against the common cold, compared to controls without face masks among healthcare workers. (7)

Airflow around masks

Masks have been assumed to be effective in obstructing forward travel of viral particles.  Considering those positioned next to or behind a mask wearer, there have been farther transmission of virus-laden fluid particles from masked individuals than from unmasked individuals, by means of “several leakage jets, including intense backward and downwards jets that may present major hazards,” and a “potentially dangerous leakage jet of up to several meters.”  (8) All masks were thought to reduce forward airflow by 90% or more over wearing no mask.  However, Schlieren imaging showed that both surgical masks and cloth masks had farther brow jets (unfiltered upward airflow past eyebrows) than not wearing any mask at all, 182 mm and 203 mm respectively, vs none discernible with no mask.  Backward unfiltered airflow was found to be strong with all masks compared to not masking.

For both N95 and surgical masks, it was found that expelled particles from 0.03 to 1 micron were deflected around the edges of each mask, and that there was measurable penetration of particles through the filter of each mask. (9)

​Penetration through masks

A study of 44 mask brands found mean 35.6% penetration (+ 34.7%).  Most medical masks had over 20% penetration, while “general masks and handkerchiefs had no protective function in terms of the aerosol filtration efficiency.”  The study found that “Medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs were found to provide little protection against respiratory aerosols.” (10)

It may be helpful to remember that an aerosol is a colloidal suspension of liquid or solid particles in a gas.  In respiration, the relevant aerosol is the suspension of bacterial or viral particles in inhaled or exhaled breath.

In another study, penetration of cloth masks by particles was almost 97% and medical masks 44%. (11)

N95 respirators

Honeywell is a manufacturer of N95 respirators.  These are made with a 0.3 micron filter. (12)  N95 respirators are so named, because 95% of particles having a diameter of 0.3 microns are filtered by the mask forward of the wearer, by use of an electrostatic mechanism. Coronaviruses are approximately 0.125 microns in diameter

This meta-analysis found that N95 respirators did not provide superior protection to facemasks against viral infections or influenza-like infections. (13)  This study did find superior protection by N95 respirators when they were fit-tested compared to surgical masks. (14)

This study found that 624 out of 714 people wearing N95 masks left visible gaps when putting on their own masks. (15)

Surgical masks

This study found that surgical masks offered no protection at all against influenza. (16) Another study found that surgical masks had about 85% penetration ratio of aerosolized inactivated influenza particles and about 90% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, although S aureus particles were about 6x the diameter of influenza particles. (17)

Use of masks in surgery were found to slightly increase incidence of infection over not masking in a study of 3,088 surgeries. (18)  The surgeons’ masks were found to give no protective effect to the patients. 

Other studies found no difference in wound infection rates with and without surgical masks. (19) (20)

This study found that


“there is a lack of substantial evidence to support claims that facemasks protect either patient or surgeon from infectious contamination.” (21)

This study found that medical masks have a wide range of filtration efficiency, with most showing a 30% to 50% efficiency. (22)

Specifically, are surgical masks effective in stopping human transmission of coronaviruses?  Both experimental and control groups, masked and unmasked respectively, were found to “not shed detectable virus in respiratory droplets or aerosols.” (23) In that study, they “did not confirm the infectivity of coronavirus” as found in exhaled breath.

A study of aerosol penetration showed that two of the five surgical masks studied had 51% to 89% penetration of polydisperse aerosols.  (24)

In another study, that observed subjects while coughing, “neither surgical nor cotton masks effectively filtered SARS-CoV-2 during coughs by infected patients.”  And more viral particles were found on the outside than on the inside of masks tested. (25)

​Cloth masks

Cloth masks were found to have low efficiency for blocking particles of 0.3 microns and smaller.  Aerosol penetration through the various cloth masks examined in this study were between 74 and 90%.  Likewise, the filtration efficiency of fabric materials was 3% to 33% (26)

Healthcare workers wearing cloth masks were found to have 13 times the risk of influenza-like illness than those wearing medical masks. (27)

This 1920 analysis of cloth mask use during the 1918 pandemic examines the failure of masks to impede or stop flu transmission at that time, and concluded that the number of layers of fabric required to prevent pathogen penetration would have required a suffocating number of layers, and could not be used for that reason, as well as the problem of leakage vents around the edges of cloth masks. (28)

Masks against Covid-19

The New England Journal of Medicine editorial on the topic of mask use versus Covid-19 assesses the matter as follows:

We know that wearing a mask outside health care facilities offers little, if any, protection from infection.  Public health authorities define a significant exposure to Covid-19 as face-to-face contact within 6 feet with a patient with symptomatic Covid-19 that is sustained for at least a few minutes (and some say more than 10 minutes or even 20 minutes).  The chance of catching Covid-19 from a passing interaction in a public space is therefore minimal.  In many cases, the desire for widespread masking is a reflexive reaction to anxiety over the pandemic.” (29)

Are masks safe?

During walking or other exercise

Surgical mask wearers had significantly increased dyspnea after a 6-minute walk than non-mask wearers. (30)

Researchers are concerned about possible burden of facemasks during physical activity on pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems, due to oxygen reduction and air trapping reducing substantial carbon dioxide exchange.  As a result of hypercapnia, there may be cardiac overload, renal overload, and a shift to metabolic acidosis. (31)

Risks of N95 respirators

Pregnant healthcare workers were found to have a loss in volume of oxygen consumption by 13.8% compared to controls when wearing N95 respirators.  17.7% less carbon dioxide was exhaled. (32)  Patients with end-stage renal disease were studied during use of N95 respirators.  Their partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly compared to controls and increased respiratory adverse effects. (33)   19% of the patients developed various degrees of hypoxemia while wearing the masks.

Healthcare workers’ N95 respirators were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbor influenza virus. (34)  And 25% of healthcare workers’ facepiece respirators were found to contain influenza in an emergency department during the 2015 flu season. (35)

Risks of surgical masks

Healthcare workers’ surgical masks also were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbor for influenza virus. (36)

Various respiratory pathogens were found on the outer surface of used medical masks, which could result in self-contamination.  The risk was found to be higher with longer duration of mask use. (37)

Surgical masks were also found to be a repository of bacterial contamination.  The source of the bacteria was determined to be the body surface of the surgeons, rather than the operating room environment. (38)  Given that surgeons are gowned from head to foot for surgery, this finding should be especially concerning for laypeople who wear masks.  Without the protective garb of surgeons, laypeople generally have even more exposed body surface to serve as a source for bacteria to collect on their masks.

Risks of cloth masks

Healthcare workers wearing cloth masks had significantly higher rates of influenza-like illness after four weeks of continuous on-the-job use, when compared to controls. (39)

The increased rate of infection in mask-wearers may be due to a weakening of immune function during mask useSurgeons have been found to have lower oxygen saturation after surgeries even as short as 30 minutes. (40)  Low oxygen induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1). (41)  This in turn down-regulates CD4+ T-cells.  CD4+ T-cells, in turn, are necessary for viral immunity. (42)

Weighing risks versus benefits of mask use

In the summer of 2020 the United States is experiencing a surge of popular mask use, which is frequently promoted by the media, political leaders and celebrities.  Homemade and store-bought cloth masks and surgical masks or N95 masks are being used by the public especially when entering stores and other publicly accessible buildings.  Sometimes bandanas or scarves are used.  The use of face masks, whether cloth, surgical or N95, creates a poor obstacle to aerosolized pathogens as we can see from the meta-analyses and other studies in this paper, allowing both transmission of aerosolized pathogens to others in various directions, as well as self-contamination. 

It must also be considered that masks impede the necessary volume of air intake required for adequate oxygen exchange, which results in observed physiological effects that may be undesirable.  Even 6- minute walks, let alone more strenuous activity, resulted in dyspnea.  The volume of unobstructed oxygen in a typical breath is about 100 ml, used for normal physiological processes.  100 ml O2 greatly exceeds the volume of a pathogen required for transmission. 

The foregoing data show that masks serve more as instruments of obstruction of normal breathing, rather than as effective barriers to pathogens. Therefore, masks should not be used by the general public, either by adults or children, and their limitations as prophylaxis against pathogens should also be considered in medical settings.

1  T Jefferson, M Jones, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 7.

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217v2

2  J Xiao, E Shiu, et al. Nonpharmaceutical measures for pandemic influenza in non-healthcare settings – personal protective and environmental measures.  Centers for Disease Control. 26(5); 2020 May.

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/5/19-0994_article

3  J Brainard, N Jones, et al. Facemasks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID19: A rapid systematic review.  MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 1.

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528v1.full.pdf

4  L Radonovich M Simberkoff, et al. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: a randomized clinic trial.  JAMA. 2019 Sep 3. 322(9): 824-833.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2749214

5  J Smith, C MacDougall. CMAJ. 2016 May 17. 188(8); 567-574.

https://www.cmaj.ca/content/188/8/567

6  F bin-Reza, V Lopez, et al. The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. 2012 Jul; 6(4): 257-267.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779801/

7  J Jacobs, S Ohde, et al.  Use of surgical face masks to reduce the incidence of the common cold among health care workers in Japan: a randomized controlled trial.  Am J Infect Control. 2009 Jun; 37(5): 417-419.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19216002/

8  M Viola, B Peterson, et al. Face coverings, aerosol dispersion and mitigation of virus transmission risk.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.10720, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2005/2005.10720.pdf

S Grinshpun, H Haruta, et al. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particular respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Env Hygiene. 2009; 6(10):593-603.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15459620903120086

10 H Jung, J Kim, et al. Comparison of filtration efficiency and pressure drop in anti-yellow sand masks, quarantine masks, medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2013 Jun. 14:991-1002.

https://aaqr.org/articles/aaqr-13-06-oa-0201.pdf

11  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

12  N95 masks explained. https://www.honeywell.com/en-us/newsroom/news/2020/03/n95-masks-explained

13  V Offeddu, C Yung, et al. Effectiveness of masks and respirators against infections in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Clin Inf Dis. 65(11), 2017 Dec 1; 1934-1942.

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/65/11/1934/4068747

14  C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aR-su9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

15  M Walker. Study casts doubt on N95 masks for the public. MedPage Today. 2020 May 20.

https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/publichealth/86601

16  C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aR-su9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

17  N Shimasaki, A Okaue, et al. Comparison of the filter efficiency of medical nonwoven fabrics against three different microbe aerosols. Biocontrol Sci.  2018; 23(2). 61-69.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bio/23/2/23_61/_pdf/-char/en

18  T Tunevall. Postoperative wound infections and surgical face masks: A controlled study. World J Surg. 1991 May; 15: 383-387.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01658736

19  N Orr. Is a mask necessary in the operating theatre? Ann Royal Coll Surg Eng 1981: 63: 390-392.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493952/pdf/annrcse01509-0009.pdf

20  N Mitchell, S Hunt. Surgical face masks in modern operating rooms – a costly and unnecessary ritual?  J Hosp Infection. 18(3); 1991 Jul 1. 239-242.

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(91)90148-2/pdf

21  C DaZhou, P Sivathondan, et al. Unmasking the surgeons: the evidence base behind the use of facemasks in surgery.  JR Soc Med. 2015 Jun; 108(6): 223-228.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480558/

22  L Brosseau, M Sietsema. Commentary: Masks for all for Covid-19 not based on sound data. U Minn Ctr Inf Dis Res Pol. 2020 Apr 1.

https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/04/commentary-masks-all-covid-19-not-based-sound-data

23  N Leung, D Chu, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks Nature Research.  2020 Mar 7. 26,676-680 (2020).

https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-16836/v1

24  S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

25  S Bae, M Kim, et al. Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS-CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 patients.  Ann Int Med. 2020 Apr 6.

https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-1342

26  S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

27  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

28  W Kellogg. An experimental study of the efficacy of gauze face masks. Am J Pub Health. 1920.  34-42.

https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.10.1.34

29  M Klompas, C Morris, et al. Universal masking in hospitals in the Covid-19 era. N Eng J Med. 2020; 382 e63.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006372

30  E Person, C Lemercier et al.  Effect of a surgical mask on six minute walking distance.  Rev Mal Respir. 2018 Mar; 35(3):264-268.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29395560/

31  B Chandrasekaran, S Fernandes.  Exercise with facemask; are we handling a devil’s sword – a physiological hypothesis. Med Hypothese. 2020 Jun 22. 144:110002.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32590322/

32  P Shuang Ye Tong, A Sugam Kale, et al.  Respiratory consequences of N95-type mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers – A controlled clinical study.  Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2015 Nov 16; 4:48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26579222/

33  T Kao, K Huang, et al. The physiological impact of wearing an N95 mask during hemodialysis as a precaution against SARS in patients with end-stage renal disease.  J Formos Med Assoc. 2004 Aug; 103(8):624-628.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15340662/

34  F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods.  2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

35  A Rule, O Apau, et al. Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season.  PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31; 13(8): e0203223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30169507/

36  F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods.  2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

37  A Chughtai, S Stelzer-Braid, et al.  Contamination by respiratory viruses on our surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers.  BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 3; 19(1): 491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31159777/

38  L Zhiqing, C Yongyun, et al. J Orthop Translat. 2018 Jun 27; 14:57-62.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30035033/

39  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577

40  A Beder, U Buyukkocak, et al. Preliminary report on surgical mask induced deoxygenation during major surgery. Neurocirugia. 2008; 19: 121-126.

http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/neuro/v19n2/3.pdf

41  D Lukashev, B Klebanov, et al. Cutting edge: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and its activation-inducible short isoform negatively regulate functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8) 4962-4965.

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/8/4962

42  A Sant, A McMichael. Revealing the role of CD4+ T-cells in viral immunity.  J Exper Med. 2012 Jun 30; 209(8):1391-1395.

https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/3420330

© 2020, Colleen Huber, NMD


Here are two sources which validate who should be wearing a mask and how to do so properly.


Original Source: Journal of the American Medical Association

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762694?fbclid=IwAR3fI10GKsPfg16ths4EKE6od7JrZT15U_CJ-OQJo96fMTbZWxuQDc_NGuU


Medical masks are a tool that can be used to prevent the spread of respiratory infection.


Medical masks are a type of personal protective equipment used to prevent the spread of respiratory infections. These masks cover the mouth and nose of the wearer and, if worn properly, may be effective at helping prevent transmission of respiratory viruses and bacteria.


There are 2 main types of masks used to prevent respiratory infection: surgical masks, sometimes referred to as face masks, and respirators. These masks differ by the type and size of infectious particles they are able to filter. Face masks are used more commonly for respiratory viruses that spread via droplets, which travel short distances and are transmitted by cough or sneeze. Face masks often fit loosely, and prevent the wearer from spreading large sprays and droplets, as well as preventing hand-to-face contact. N95 respirators block 95% of airborne particles. They are tight fitting and prevent inhalation of smaller infectious particles that can spread through the air over long distances after an infected person coughs or sneezes. Diseases that require use of an N95 respirator include tuberculosis, chickenpox, and measles. N95 respirators cannot be used by individuals with facial hair or by children because it is difficult to achieve a proper fit. In those cases, a special respirator called a powered air-purifying respirator may be used instead.


When Should a Mask Be Used?


Face masks should be used only by individuals who have symptoms of respiratory infection such as coughing, sneezing, or, in some cases, fever. Face masks should also be worn by health care workers, by individuals who are taking care of or are in close contact with people who have respiratory infections, or otherwise as directed by a doctor.

Face masks should not be worn by healthy individuals to protect themselves from acquiring respiratory infection because there is no evidence to suggest that face masks worn by healthy individuals are effective in preventing people from becoming ill.

Face masks should be reserved for those who need them because masks can be in short supply during periods of widespread respiratory infection. Because N95 respirators require special fit testing, they are not recommended for use by the general public.


How to Wear a Mask


If wearing a face mask is indicated, it is important to wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds prior to putting on the face mask. An alcohol-based sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol can also be used if soap and water are unavailable.

After cleaning your hands, place the face mask over your nose and mouth. Make sure there are no gaps between the face mask and your face, and ensure a tight seal. Try to avoid touching the face mask when wearing it. If you do touch the face mask, wash your hands or use hand sanitizer again. When you are done using the face mask, remove it without touching the front of the face mask, and discard it into a closed bin. Wash your hands again after discarding the face mask.


Preventing Infection Acquisition


Hand hygiene is one of the most important ways to prevent acquiring and spreading respiratory infections. Wash your hands often. Try not to touch your nose, eyes, or mouth prior to washing your hands. Avoid close contact with others who are sick. Clean household surfaces and objects with wipes or cleaning spray when available. If you become ill, stay home to avoid making other people sick.

For More Information

To find this and other JAMA Patient Pages, go to the For Patients collection at jamanetworkpatientpages.com.

The JAMA Patient Page is a public service of JAMA. The information and recommendations appearing on this page are appropriate in most instances, but they are not a substitute for medical diagnosis. For specific information concerning your personal medical condition, JAMA suggests that you consult your physician. This page may be photocopied non commercially by physicians and other healthcare professionals to share with patients. To purchase bulk reprints, email reprints@jamanetwork.com.


Article Information

Published Online: March 4, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2331

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Sources: World Health Organization. When and how to use masks. http://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use-masks

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): prevention and treatment. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html

Radonovich LJ, Simberkoff MS, Bessesen MT, et al. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel. JAMA. 2019;322(9):824-833.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use-masks


Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19 This document provides advice on the use of masks in communities, during home care, and in health care settings in areas that have reported cases of COVID-19. It is intended for individuals in the community, public health and infection prevention and control (IPC) professionals, health care managers, health care workers (HCWs), and community health workers. This updated version includes a section on Advice to decision makers on the use of masks for healthy people in community settings. - Access the guidance


Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

This document summarizes WHO recommendations for the rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE), in health care and community settings, including the handling of cargo. This document is intended for those involved in the distribution and management of PPE, as well as public health authorities and individuals in health care and community settings to understand when PPE use is most appropriate. -  Access the publication


When to use a mask

  • Before putting on a mask, clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

  • Cover mouth and nose with mask and make sure there are no gaps between your face and the mask.

  • Avoid touching the mask while using it; if you do, clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

  • Replace the mask with a new one as soon as it is damp and do not re-use single-use masks.

  • To remove the mask: remove it from behind (do not touch the front of mask); discard immediately in a closed bin; clean hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.


When and how to wear medical masks to protect against coronavirus?

  • If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with COVID-19.

  • Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing.

  • Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

  • If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly.

Dr. Buttar talks about the coming control grid of mandated nanoparticles vaccines, RF chips, and 5G, all based on total disinformation.


The recent Covid19 study reveals that the death rate is actually less than the seasonal flu. The total numbers have been insufficient to justify the lockdown so the numbers are being manipulated to inflate the death rate. He also discusses the face mask issue and why they should NOT be worn!




Why Social Distancing is the WRONG thing to do.


Take it from the doctors on the front lines who explain how the immune system works. Sheltering in place will be the death of you if you let your immune system weaken from lack of exposure to daily pathogens. Overuse of sanitizers, cleaners, masks, gloves, and other measures is like living in a protective bubble. Once released from that bubble, massive infections and endless lockdowns will become the norm for all of society. Then, forced vaccinations to try to "solve" a problem that was man-made through bad unscientific policies will be the response of authorities.


You can click the uncensored link at Bitchute or watch it here.


https://www.153news.net. The truth is here!

Mirrored: https://153news.net/watch_video.php?v...

Full censored interview: https://153news.net/watch_video.php?v...



International best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman MB ChB DSc FRSA, points out that there is no real science behind social distancing laws which vary from country to country. He points out that if we were to have effective social distancing based on real science we would all have to keep at least 24 feet apart. He proposes better laws which would be more effective.



International best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman MB ChB DSc FRSA, explains why new regulations will put most dentists out of business and create havoc for patients.


Hand Sanitizers


WORK IN PROGRESS

How do hand sanitizers kill bacteria?


Hand sanitizers, according to sound scientific principles, are designed to disable live bacteria. Often used on the go, hand sanitizers contain ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol or both to kill bacteria on your hands. Alcohols have long been known to kill germs by denaturing the protective outer proteins of microbes and dissolving their membranes.


Ethyl Alcohol is also a slightly better virucide than isopropyl alcohol (IPA). A 70% solution of Ethyl Alcohol 95% kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria, fungi and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores.


At least this is what the manufacturers say. The trouble with viruses, is that they are not living micro-organisms at all. They are in fact, part of the immune system, a crucial part, and they act as a solvent or soap.



Free Handouts:


ALBERTA HEALTH INFORMATION ACT and Face Mask Exemption Flyer

https://1drv.ms/b/s!AgV-Cd98Qo-qjqJSVdxvZRg3BxVdoQ?e=w6ZQSb



COVID-19 - Face Coverings Bylaw: Questions & Answers


Highlights from the city of Calgary bylaw

  • What is considered a public premise?

People are expected to wear a face covering in any part of an enclosed space to which the public can readily access. The bylaw excludes premises for which there is an enrolment or membership requirement such as schools and educational institutions.


The rule of thumb is, if the public does not have access to it, it will be exempt under the bylaw.


  • Will businesses be responsible for making sure people are complying with the bylaw?

The bylaw requires businesses to display a prescribed sign at a location that is visible to a person immediately upon entering the public premises or public vehicle.


The business is not expected to evict a customer or refuse service to people who are not complying with the bylaw.


  • How is enforcement in businesses possible for people who have exceptions?

Employers, operators or proprietors are not expected to enforce this bylaw. The bylaw was drafted to minimize the chance of conflict and provide a safe environment for all.


Those exempt will not be required to provide proof of exemption.


  • Do face coverings need to be worn in places of worship?

Places of worship would be included in the bylaw definition of a public premise, as they are enclosed buildings that members of the public have access to. Those attending places of worship are permitted to temporarily remove their face covering to provide or receive service, such as to receive communion.


However, if a place of worship closes its doors to the public for a private event (for example a wedding), it is not a public premises during the event and therefore attendants will not have to wear face coverings.


  • Would it be correct to assume public meetings, such as condo board meetings, would be exempt from the bylaw?

A meeting such as a condo board meeting would not be included in the definition of a public premises, as members of the public would not have access, therefore participants would not be required under the bylaw to wear face coverings.

Additional Resources to Review

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